Which 10 international trade agreements or policies have recently been implemented or renegotiated, impacting global commerce?

1. United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA): Signed in 2018 and implemented in 2020, the USMCA replaced the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and aimed to modernize trade rules between the three countries.

2. Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP): Formed in 2018, the CPTPP includes 11 countries such as Japan, Canada, and Australia, and aims to reduce tariffs and non-tariff barriers among member nations.

3. European Union-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA): Implemented in 2019, this agreement aimed to create one of the world’s largest open economic zones and eliminate most tariffs on goods between the European Union and Japan.

4. African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA): Officially launched in January 2021, the AfCFTA aims to create a single market for goods and services in Africa, foster intra-African trade, and boost economic growth on the continent.

5. Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP): Signed in November 2020, the RCEP involves 15 countries, including the ten ASEAN nations and major economies like China, Japan, South Korea, Australia, and New Zealand. It aims to lower tariffs and promote trade and investment across the region.

6. United Kingdom-European Union Trade and Cooperation Agreement: After the UK left the European Union in 2020, this agreement was reached in December of the same year to establish a new economic relationship, covering areas such as trade, fishing, and cooperation.

7. Canada-United States-Mexico Agreement (CUSMA): In addition to the USMCA, this agreement was implemented in 2020 to revise and modernize the terms of trade between Canada, the United States, and Mexico.

8. United States-China Phase One Trade Deal: Signed in January 2020, this deal was aimed at resolving certain trade disputes between the US and China, addressing issues related to intellectual property, technology transfer, and agricultural trade.

9. Mercosur-European Union Trade Agreement: After two decades of negotiations, this agreement was signed in 2019 between the European Union and Mercosur, a South American trade bloc comprising Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay. The deal aims to reduce tariffs and promote trade between the two regions.

10. United States-Japan Trade Agreement: Reached in 2019, this bilateral agreement between the US and Japan sought to reduce or eliminate tariffs on certain agricultural and industrial products, improving access to each other’s markets.

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