What are the top 10 international agreements or initiatives aimed at addressing climate change and reducing greenhouse gas emissions?

1. Paris Agreement: The Paris Agreement, adopted in 2015, is an international treaty under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). It aims to limit global warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius.

2. Kyoto Protocol: The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty linked to the UNFCCC. It was adopted in 1997 and entered into force in 2005. It sets binding emission reduction targets for a group of industrialized countries, known as Annex I countries.

3. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC): The UNFCCC is an international environmental treaty adopted in 1992. It provides a framework for international cooperation to combat climate change. The conference of parties (COP) meetings under the UNFCCC serve as key platforms for addressing climate change.

4. Clean Development Mechanism (CDM): The CDM is a mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol that allows developed countries to implement emission reduction projects in developing countries. These projects generate certified emission reduction credits, which can be used to meet part of their emission reduction commitments.

5. Montreal Protocol: The Montreal Protocol is an international treaty adopted in 1987. Though primarily aimed at addressing ozone layer depletion, it also indirectly contributed to climate change mitigation by phasing out substances that are potent greenhouse gases, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).

6. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): The IPCC is a scientific body established by the United Nations in 1988. It assesses scientific information related to climate change, its impacts, and potential mitigation and adaptation measures. The IPCC’s reports play a crucial role in informing policy-making and international negotiations.

7. Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI): The GGGI is an international organization that promotes green growth and sustainable development. It assists countries in formulating and implementing green growth strategies that integrate climate change mitigation and adaptation measures.

8. REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation): REDD+ is an international initiative that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by providing financial incentives for developing countries to protect and sustainably manage their forests. It also seeks to enhance forest carbon stocks.

9. Renewable Energy Initiatives: Numerous international initiatives promote the deployment and expansion of renewable energy sources like solar, wind, and hydroelectric power. These include initiatives like the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) and campaigns such as the global “Switch to Renewables” movement.

10. Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): While not exclusively focused on climate change, the SDGs, adopted by the United Nations in 2015, include a goal (Goal 13) specifically aimed at taking urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts. The SDGs provide an overall framework for sustainable development, which encompasses various aspects related to climate change and environmental protection.

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